(Montenegrin: Crna Gora, meaning “Black Mountain”)
1. Political structure of Montenegro
Official name: Republic of Montenegro
Form of government: Republic
Political regime: Democracy
The legislative body of Montenegro: unicameral parliament - Skupstina.
2. The recent political developments
Montenegro was one of the six republics of the former Yugoslavia.
In 1992 as a result of Yugoslavia’s disintegration Montenegro created a new union with Serbia - the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
However, on February 4, 2003 the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was renamed into the Union of Serbia and Montenegro. The Confederation was formed, and equal rights were given to both republics - Serbia and Montenegro.
By June 2006 Montenegro had been a part of the confederal state Union of Serbia and Montenegro, occupying 13.5% of its total territory. Montenegro was declared independent on June 3, 2006.
Montenegro is located on the south east portion of Europe, in the central zone of the Mediterranean, on the Adriatic coast of the Balkan peninsula. On the west, north and east of Montenegro’s territory it borders with Croatia, Bosnia&Herzegovina and Serbia; while on the south of Montenegro it borders with Albania. Montenegro is a maritime state with 293.5 km length of the Adriatic coastline.
One of the most amazing Mediterranean bays is the Bay of Kotor (Boka Kotorska). Boka Kotorska bay is composed of several smaller broad bays, united by rather narrow channels and forming one of the finest natural harbors in Europe.
The total territory of Montenegro is 13 812 km2. The population of Montenegro is around 672 000 people.
The capital of Montenegro is Podgorica, which also is its administrative and economic center with 160 000 residents.
Cetinje, meanwhile is the historical and cultural center of Montenegro.
The official language in Montenegro is Montenegrin.
The currency - the Euro.
It has two international airports in Tivat and Podgorica.
The highest mountain peak is Bobotov Cook, at 2 522 m on the mountain range of Durmitor.
The largest lake is the Skadar Lake with 391 km2 of surface area.
The deepest canyon is the Tara River Canyon - 1 300 m.
The biggest bay is the Bay of Kotor.
The most important National Parks are Durmitor, Lovcen, Biogradska Mountain and Skadar Lake.
The Worlds Natural and Cultural Heritage - Durmitor Mount, Tara River Canyon and the Old Town of Kotor - are protected under the UNESCO.
Most of Montenegro is covered by high and extensive mountain ranges separated by rivers flowing through canyons and deep valleys. A large flat surface is located on the south near the coast.
The Montenegrin coast is a narrow line of land from Herceg Novi to the river Bojana on Albanian border. The coast is famous for its sandy beaches and rich subtropical plants.
The high mountain chains of Dinarides - Orjen, Lovcen and Rumija - rise gradually from the sea to the center of the country, forming a stunning beautiful background of Montenegrin coast.
The Zeta plain near Skadar Lake together with the Zeta and Niksic Valleys covers the largest flat area of Montenegro and its most fertile territory.
2/3 of Skadar Lake, the largest lake in the Balkans with an area of about 390 km2 belongs to Montenegro. It is the home of 264 species of birds, many of which are rare or endangered species. Near the Albanian border lays the only European natural nesting site for the Dalmatian Pelican.
Approximately, 40 species of fish live in the lake.
The first capital of Montenegro was Cetinje. Podgorica, Niksic, Pljevlja, Bijelo Polje, Berane, Kotor, Bar and Herceg Novi are the largest urban settlements.
4. Brief information for tourists.
The climate is typical for Mediterranean regions with an average annual temperature of 17 degrees Celsius.
The swimming season goes from April until November, and transparency of the sea water is 38-56 meters deep.
Water. Montenegro is one of the richest countries in the world regarding the purity and quality of drinking water.
The historical and cultural capital of Montenegro is the city of Cetinje.
The official administrative center is Podgorica.
Religion. Montenegro is an Orthodox Slavic state.
Currency. Since 01.01.2002 the main currency is the euro. 1 Euro = 100 cents, coinage of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 cents and 1 and 2 euros.
Official language: Montenegrin.
Visa control. The entry for European, American, Russian, Belorussian and Ukrainian citizens is visa-free for up to 1-6 months.
Mobile communications. In Montenegro there are three mobile operators: M:tel, ProMonte and T-Mobile.
Air communications. Montenegro has two international airports in Podgorica and Tivat. The national carrier “Montenegro Airlines” provides regular service to: Belgrade, Budapest, Vienna, Zurich, Frankfurt, Ljubljana, Rome, London. Close to 30 airlines carry out flights to and from Montenegro.
Banks. Working hours are from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. on weekdays with a lunch break between 1 p.m. and 2 p.m. Credit cards are accepted.
Retail Stores. Most stores are open from 8 a.m. to 9 p.m. with a lunch break between 1 p.m. to 2 p.m. Grocery stores open at 6 a.m. continuously without a break.
Museums are open from 8 a.m. to 2 p.m.
Car Rentals. To rent a car you just need a driver's license. It is recommended and cost-efficient to rent a car for more than 5 days.
The length of the beach is 73 km with wave heights of approximately 0,5 meters. The largest beach is Velika Pljaza in Ulcinj - 13 km.
Sandy beaches are located in Budva Riviera, some beaches of Lustica and Ulcinj Riviera.
Pebble beaches are in Tivat, Herceg Novi, Zanica, and Rosa.
Fauna: 166 species of fish, crabs and shellfish.
Flora in Montenegro: olive woods, tropical fruits, citrus trees, cypresses and palms, grapes.